Steel plants in China produce around 1 billion tons of crude steel and about 300 million tons of slag annually. As of this year there are about 2 billion tons of steel slag in China. Dealing with
China& 39;s self-styled war on pollution is extending to a new front: the solid waste that makes up thousands of slag heaps around the country a byproduct of its record steel output.
The wastes generated are recycled back within the steel plants. Solid wastes such as Blast Furnace slag is granulated within the steel plant and sold to cement industry. Gaseous wastes generated from the processes are further used in downstream processes in the plant such as in the reheating furnaces and power generation.
Iron processing - Iron processing - Iron making: The primary objective of iron making is to release iron from chemical combination with oxygen and since the blast furnace is much the most efficient process it receives the most attention here. Alternative methods known as direct reduction are used in over a score of countries but less than 5 percent of iron is made this way.
In addition the Blast furnace requires a sinter plant too in order to prepare the iron ore for reduction. Unlike the Blast Furnace smelting reduction processes are typical smaller and use coal and oxygen directly to reduce iron ore into a usable product. Smelting reduction processes come in two basic varieties two-stage or single-stage.
The HIsarna ironmaking process is a direct reduced iron process for iron making in which iron ore is processed almost directly into liquid iron .The process combines two process units the Cyclone Converter Furnace CCF for ore melting and pre-reduction and a Smelting Reduction Vessel SRV where the final reduction stage to liquid iron takes place.
The heart of the process is the blast furnace that refines iron ore into iron. The ingredients are heated to nearly 1500 degrees Centigrade to form two components: iron and molten slag. The iron is used to produce steel and the molten slag is converted to a cement-like material by rapidly cooling it with water.
The ferronickel slag used in this study was obtained from a ferronickel smelting plant in China which produces Ni–Fe alloy by the RKEF process. This slag contained 48.29 wt % SiO 2 30.95 wt % MgO 2.11 wt % Cr 2 O 3 7.39 wt % FeO and 4.04 wt % Al 2 O 3. Its main mineral phase was olivine Mg 1.8 Fe 0.2 SiO 4 .
For example our China portside customers can order iron ore via a mobile app. Rio Tinto Iron Ore Today we produce five iron ore products in Western Australia – including the Pilbara Blend the world’s most recognised brand of iron ore – used in steelworks as sinter plant feed or direct blast furnace feed.
Sintering plants are not used at all steel production facilities. In non-recovery batteries coke oven slag and other by-products are sent to the battery where they are combusted. This technique consumes the by-products eliminating much of the air and water pollution. These plants use iron carbide an iron ore that contains 6% carbon
Sintering the welding together of small particles of metal by applying heat below the melting point.The process may be used in steel manufacturing—to form complex shapes to produce alloys or to work in metals with very high melting points. In a steel-sintering plant a bed of powdered iron ore mixed with coke or anthracite is ignited by a gas burner and then moved along a traveling grate.
Cast iron has been found in China dating to the 5th century BC but the earliest extant blast furnaces in China date to the 1st century AD and in the West from the High Middle Ages. They spread from the region around Namur in Wallonia in the late 15th century being introduced to England in 1491.The fuel used in these was invariably charcoal.The successful substitution of coke for charcoal is
China used crossbows militarily as late as 1895 in its war with Japan. The Compass: The compass was invented in ancient China. People learned to use naturally occurring magnets called lodestones to magnetize an iron pointer. The first pointers had a shape somelike a balanced spoon.
The Dwight Lloyed sintering machine used to make sinter is shown schematically in Fig. 8. Fig. 8 : Iron ore sintering machine The modern sintering machines are provided with efficient burners larger sinter bed area heat recovery system from hot sinter air and thermal emission abatement devices etc.
Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters.Primary lead production clarifi ion needed begins with sintering.Concentrated lead ore is fed into a sintering machine with iron silica limestone fluxes coke soda ash pyrite zinc caustics or pollution control particulates. Smelting uses suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing